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                        Procurement Management

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                        This chapter covers key concepts related to Project Procurement Management.

                        1. Procurement Management involves getting work done by people outside the project team. Project Procurement Management includes administering contracts and change control process to manage contracts or purchase orders. The knowledge area of Project Procurement Management consists of the following processes -

                          Procurement Management Processes

                          Process Project Phase Key Deliverables
                          Plan Procurement Management Planning Procurement Management Plan
                          Conduct Procurements Execution Selected Sellers, Procurement contract award
                          Control Procurements Monitoring and Controlling Change requests
                          Close Procurements Closure Closed procurements


                        2. The Plan Procurement process involves build versus buy decisions. The Inputs, Tools and Techniques, and Outputs of Plan Procurement process are listed in the table below.

                          Plan Procurement Management process

                          Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs
                          Scope baseline Make-or-buy analysis Procurement management plan
                          Requirements documentation Expert judgment Procurement statements of work
                          Teaming agreements Contract types Make-or-buy decisions
                          Risk register   Procurement documents
                          Risk-related contract decisions   Source selection criteria
                          Activity resource requirements   Change requests
                          Project schedule    
                          Activity cost estimates    
                          Cost performance baseline    
                          Enterprise environmental factors    
                          Organizational process assets    


                        3. A contract is a formal agreement. It is a legal document biding to both seller and buyer. Changes to contract must be in writing and formally controlled. Most Governments back all contracts by providing a court system.
                        4. The process of Conduct Procurement involves receiving seller responses, selecting a seller, and awarding a contract. During this process bids or proposals from sellers are evaluated, and one or more seller is selected to execute the work.

                          Conduct Procurement process

                          Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs
                          Project Management Plan Bidder conferences Selected sellers
                          Procurement documents Proposal evaluation techniques Procurement contract award
                          Source Selection criteria Independent estimates Resource calendars
                          Qualified seller list Expert judgment Change requests
                          Seller proposals Advertising Project management plan updates
                          Project documents Internet search Project document updates
                          Make-or-buy decisions Procurement negotiations  
                          Teaming agreements    
                          Organizational process assets    


                        5. Sole Source refers to a market condition in which only one qualified seller exists in the market.
                          Single Source refers to a market condition in which the company prefers to contract with only one seller.
                          Oligopoly refers to a market condition where very few sellers exist, and the action of one seller will have impact on other seller prizes.
                        6. Bidder conferences are meetings between buyer and sellers before the bid is submitted. The conference is used by buyers to provide consistent information to all sellers.
                        7. The process of Control Procurement involves managing procurement relationships and ensuring the seller performance meets the procurement requirements.

                          Control Procurement process

                          Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs
                          Procurement documents Contract change control system Procurement documentation
                          Project management plan Procurement performance reviews Organizational assets updates
                          Contract Inspection and audits Change requests
                          Performance reports Performance reporting Project management plan updates
                          Approved change requests Payment systems  
                          Work performance information Claims administration  
                            Records management system  


                        8. Contract can be used as a risk management tool, as in transferring risk.
                        9. Centralized Contracting refers to a separate contracting office that handles contracts for all projects. In De-centralized Contracting a contract administrator is assigned for each project.
                        10. Force majeure is a powerful and unexpected event, such as hurricane or other disaster.
                        11. Privity is contractual information between customer and vendor.
                        12. The process of Close Procurement involves completing each procurement. The process involves verifying that all planned work as per the contract has been completed.

                          Close Procurement process



                          Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs
                          Project management plan Procurement audits Closed procurements
                          Procurement documentation Negotiated settlements Organizational process updates
                            Records management system  

                        Questions on Project Procurement Management are available at Procurement Questions.

                        UP NEXT: Stakeholder Management

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